Alzheimer’s is a type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. Symptoms usually develop slowly and get worse over time, becoming severe enough to interfere with daily tasks.

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia. The word dementia describes a set of symptoms that can include memory loss and difficulties with thinking, problem-solving or language. These symptoms occur when the brain is damaged by certain diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. This factsheet describes the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, how it is diagnosed, and the factors that can put someone at risk of developing it. It also describes the treatments and support that are currently available.

Alzheimer’s disease, named after the doctor who first described it (Alois Alzheimer), is a physical disease that affects the brain. There are more than 520,000 people in the UK with Alzheimer’s disease. During the course of the disease, proteins build up in the brain to form structures called ‘plaques’ and ‘tangles’. This leads to the loss of connections between nerve cells, and eventually to the death of nerve cells and loss of brain tissue. People with Alzheimer’s also have a shortage of some important chemicals in their brain. These chemical messengers help to transmit signals around the brain. When there is a shortage of them, the signals are not transmitted as effectively. As discussed below, current treatments for Alzheimer’s disease can help boost the levels of chemical messengers in the brain, which can help with some of the symptoms.

Alzheimer’s is a progressive disease. This means that gradually, over time, more parts of the brain are damaged. As this happens, more symptoms develop. They also become more severe.

Symptoms

The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are generally mild to start with, but they get worse over time and start to interfere with daily life.

There are some common symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, but it is important to remember that everyone is unique. Two people with Alzheimer’s are unlikely to experience the condition in exactly the same way.

For most people with Alzheimer’s, the earliest symptoms are memory lapses. In particular, they may have difficulty recalling recent events and learning new information. These symptoms occur because the early damage in Alzheimer’s is usually to a part of the brain called the hippocampus, which has a central role in day-to-day memory. Memory for life events that happened a long time ago is often unaffected in the early stages of the disease.

Memory loss due to Alzheimer’s disease increasingly interferes with daily life as the condition progresses. The person may:

  • lose items (eg keys, glasses) around the house
  • struggle to find the right word in a conversation or forget someone’s name
  • forget about recent conversations or events
  • get lost in a familiar place or on a familiar journey
  • forget appointments or anniversaries.

    Although memory difficulties are usually the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer’s, someone with the disease will also have – or go on to develop – problems with other aspects of thinking, reasoning, perception or communication. They might have difficulties with:

    language – struggling to follow a conversation or repeating themselves visuospatial skills – problems judging distance or seeing objects in three dimensions; navigating stairs or parking the car become much harder concentrating, planning or organising – difficulties making decisions, solving problems or carrying out a sequence of tasks (eg cooking a meal) orientation – becoming confused or losing track of the day or date. A person in the earlier stages of Alzheimer’s will often have changes in their mood. They may become anxious, irritable or depressed. Many people become withdrawn and lose interest in activities and hobbies.

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Allergies, conjointly referred to as allergic diseases, square measure variety of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the system to one thing within the surroundings that sometimes causes very little downside in most of the people. These diseases embody allergic rhinitis, food allergies, atopic eczema, allergic respiratory illness, and hypersensitivity reaction. Symptoms could embody red eyes, associate degree unquiet rash, runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling. Food intolerances and malady square measure separate conditions.

Allergies square measure among the foremost common chronic conditions worldwide. allergic reaction symptoms vary from creating you miserable to putt you in danger for grave reactions. per the leading specialists in allergic reaction, associate degree aversion begins within the system. Our system protects US from incursive organisms which will cause unwellness. If you have got associate degree allergic reaction, your system mistakes associate degree otherwise harmless substance as associate degree intruder. This substance is named associate degree matter. The system overreacts to the matter by manufacturing IgE (IgE) antibodies. These antibodies jaunt cells that unleash aminoalkane and alternative chemicals, inflicting associate degree aversion

An aversion generally triggers symptoms within the nose, lungs, throat, sinuses, ears, lining of the abdomen or on the skin. for a few individuals, allergies also can trigger symptoms of respiratory illness. within the most serious cases, a grave reaction known as hypersensitivity reaction (an-a-fi-LAK-sis) will occur. variety of various allergens square measure accountable for aversions. the foremost common include:

  • Pollen
  • Dust
  • Food
  • Insect stings
  • Animal dander
  • Mold
  • Medications
  • Latex
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Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever or pollinosis, is a condition which occurs when the immune system overreacts toallergens in the air. Signs and symptoms include a runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, red, itchy, and watery eyes, and swelling around the eyes. The fluid from the nose is usually clear.

 Symptoms onset is often within minutes following exposure and they can affect sleep, the ability to work, and the ability to concentrate at school. Those whose symptoms are due to pollen typically develop symptoms during specific times of the year.Many people with allergic rhinitis also have asthma, allergic conjunctivitis, oratopic dermatitis.

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Allergic bronchitis is an illness wherein someone has severe allergies that lead to a bronchial immune system reaction.

Bronchitis occurs when there is an inflammation of the windpipe and airways within the lungs.Allergic bronchitis is an illness wherein someone has severe allergies that cause a bronchial immune system reaction. Doctors can sometimes distinguish it from regular bronchitis by looking for other allergic symptoms within the patient.

 While bronchitis symptoms such as wheezing and difficulty breathing are similar to the symptoms of asthma, there are some important differences. Allergic bronchitis will often flare up due to seasonal allergies, so it’s often a very short-term condition. In cases in which a person has lingering bronchitis caused by allergies, he will sometimes have to have an allergy test therefore the doctor can figure out what is causing the problem.

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Addison’s disease (also Addison disease, chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism, and hypoadrenalism) is a rare, chronic endocrine system disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce sufficient steroid hormones (glucocorticoids andmineralocorticoids).

 It is characterised by a number of relatively nonspecific symptoms, such as abdominal pain and weakness, but under certain circumstances, these may progress to Addisonian crisis, a severe illness which may include very low blood pressureand coma. An adrenal crisis often occurs if the body is subjected to stress, such as an accident, injury, surgery, severe infection or illness; death may quickly follow.

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Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder that results from too much growth hormone (GH) in the body. The pituitary, a small gland in the brain, makes GH. In acromegaly, the pituitary produces excessive amounts of GH. Usually the excess GH comes from benign, or noncancerous, tumors on the pituitary. These benign tumors are called adenomas.

Acromegaly is most often diagnosed in middle-aged adults, although symptoms can appear at any age. If not treated, acromegaly can result in serious illness and premature death. Acromegaly is treatable in most patients, but because of its slow and often “sneaky” onset, it often is not diagnosed early or correctly. The most serious health consequences of acromegaly are type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and arthritis. Patients with acromegaly are also at increased risk for colon polyps, which may develop into colon cancer if not removed. When GH-producing tumors occur in childhood, the disease that results is called gigantism rather than acromegaly. A child’s height is determined by the length of the so-called long bones in the legs. In response to GH, these bones grow in length at the growth plates—areas near either end of the bone. Growth plates fuse after puberty, so the excessive GH production in adults does not result in increased height. However, prolonged exposure to excess GH before the growth plates fuse causes increased growth of the long bones and thus increased height. Pediatricians may become concerned about this possibility if a child’s growth rate suddenly and markedly increases beyond what would be predicted by previous growth and how tall the child’s parents are.

What are the symptoms of acromegaly? The name acromegaly comes from the Greek words for “extremities” and “enlargement,” reflecting one of its most common symptoms—the abnormal growth of the hands and feet. Swelling of the hands and feet is often an early feature, with patients noticing a change in ring or shoe size, particularly shoe width. Gradually, bone changes alter the patient’s facial features: The brow and lower jaw protrude, the nasal bone enlarges, and the teeth space out. Overgrowth of bone and cartilage often leads to arthritis. When tissue thickens, it may trap nerves, causing carpal tunnel syndrome, which results in numbness and weakness of the hands. Body organs, including the heart, may enlarge. Other symptoms of acromegaly include

  • joint aches
  • thick, coarse, oily skin
  • skin tags
  • enlarged lips, nose, and tongue
  • deepening of the voice due to enlarged sinuses and vocal cords
  • sleep apnea-breaks in breathing during sleep due to obstruction of the airway
  • excessive sweating and skin odor
  • fatigue and weakness
  • headaches
  • impaired vision
  • abnormalities of the menstrual cycle and sometimes breast discharge in women
  • erectile dysfunction in men
  • decreased libido
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Acne is common and is usually treatable. You may need treatment for several months to clear spots. Inflamed acne needs to be treated early to prevent scarring. Once the spots are gone, you may need maintenance treatment for several years to keep the spots away.

Acne is the common cause of spots. Most people with acne are aged between 12 and 25 but some older and younger people are affected. Boys are more commonly affected than girls. Acne usually affects the face but may also affect the back, neck and chest. The severity can range from mild to severe. About 8 in 10 teenagers develop some degree of acne. Often it is mild. However, it is estimated that about 3 in 10 teenagers have acne bad enough to need treatment to prevent scarring. Untreated acne usually lasts about 4-5 years before settling. However, it can last for many years in some cases.

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Acidity refers to a set of symptoms caused by an imbalance between the acid secreting mechanism of the stomach and proximal intestine and the protective mechanisms that ensure their safety. The stomach normally secretes acid that is essential in the digestive process. This acid helps in breaking down the food during digestion. When there is excess production of acid by the gastric glands of the stomach, it results in the condition known as acidity.

An excess or imbalance of digestive acids produced by the stomach can cause a stomach ache, gas, nausea, bad breath and other symptoms. It is a common problem that affects people of all ages. Those who suffer frequently from acidity problems may refer to having an “acid stomach.” Eating spicy foods, lack of exercise, irregular eating habits, stress, or drinking alcohol frequently can lead to acidity problems. Some simple natural remedies can be used to treat stomach acidity. For instance, simply drinking a little water will help neutralize and flush out excess acid from your stomach. If you frequently suffer from acidity, drink a glass of lukewarm water every day before going to sleep and immediately after waking up in the morning. Do not drink water during or immediately after a meal though, as it can lead to improper digestion that can contribute to acidity.

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At the entrance to your stomach is a valve, which is a ring of muscle called the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Normally, the LES closes as soon as food passes through it.

If the LES doesn’t close all the way or if it opens too often, acid produced by your stomach can move up into your esophagus. This can cause symptoms such as a burning chest paincalled heartburn. If acid reflux symptoms happen more than twice a week, you have acid reflux disease, also known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

One common cause of acid reflux disease is a stomach abnormality called a hiatal hernia. This occurs when the upper part of the stomach and LES move above the diaphragm, a muscle that separates your stomach from your chest. Normally, the diaphragm helps keep acid in our stomach. But if you have a hiatal hernia, acid can move up into your esophagus and cause symptoms of acid reflux disease.

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The cause of abdominal problems can be hard to pinpoint. Sometimes minor and serious abdominal problems start with the same symptoms. Fortunately, most abdominal problems are minor, and home treatment is all that is needed.

 Occasionally, severe pain that comes on suddenly may be a symptom of a rupture of the stomach or intestines (perforation), torsion of the testicle or ovary, a kidney stone, gallbladder disease, or blood vessel problems, such as an aortic aneurysm. The pain caused by appendicitis or gallbladder disease may increase when you move or cough. Pain that increases with movement or coughing and does not appear to be caused by strained muscles is more likely to be a symptom of a serious problem. A visit to a doctor is usually needed when severe abdominal pain comes on suddenly, or when new and different mild pain slowly becomes more severe over several hours or days.

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