Tennis elbow” is a common term for a condition caused by overuse of arm, forearm, and hand muscles that results in elbow pain. You don’t have to play tennis to get this, but the term came into use because it can be a significant problem for some tennis players.

 Tennis elbow is caused by either abrupt or subtle injury of the muscle and tendon area around the outside of the elbow. Tennis elbow specifically involves the area where the muscles and tendons of the forearm attach to the outside bony area (called the lateral epicondyle) of the elbow. Your doctor may call this condition lateral epicondylitis. Another common term, “golfer’s elbow,” refers to the same process occurring on the inside of the elbow — what your doctor may call medial epicondylitis. Overuse injury can also affect the back or posterior part of the elbow as well.

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“Tennis elbow” is a common term for a condition caused by overuse of arm, forearm, and hand muscles that results in elbow pain. You don’t have to play tennis to get this, but the term came into use because it can be a significant problem for some tennis players.

Tennis elbow is a condition that causes pain around the outside of the elbow. It’s clinically known as lateral epicondylitis. It often occurs after strenuous overuse of the muscles and tendons of the forearm, near the elbow joint. You may notice pain: on the outside of your upper forearm, just below the bend of your elbow when lifting or bending your arm when gripping small objects, such as a pen when twisting your forearm, such as turning a door handle or opening a jar. The elbow joint is surrounded by muscles that move your elbow, wrist and fingers. The tendons in your elbow join the bones and muscles together, and control the muscles of your forearm. Tennis elbow is usually caused by overusing the muscles attached to your elbow and used to straighten your wrist. If the muscles and tendons are strained, tiny tears and inflammation can develop near the bony lump (the lateral epicondyle) on the outside of your elbow. As the name suggests, tennis elbow is sometimes caused by playing tennis. However, it is often caused by other activities that place repeated stress on the elbow joint, such as decorating or playing the violin. Pain that occurs on the inner side of the elbow is often known as golfer’s elbow.

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Syphilis is a highly contagious disease spread primarily by sexual activity, including oral and anal sex. Occasionally, the disease can be passed to another

person through prolonged kissing or close bodily contact. Although this disease is spread from sores, the vast majority of those sores go unrecognized. The infected person is often unaware of the disease and unknowingly passes it on to his or her sexual partner.

Pregnant women with the disease can spread it to their baby. This disease, called congenital syphilis, can cause abnormalities or even death to the child.

Syphilis cannot be spread by toilet seats, door knobs, swimming pools, hot tubs, bath tubs, shared clothing, or eating utensils.

Syphilis infection occurs in three distinct stages:

Early or primary syphilis. People with primary syphilis will develop one or more sores. The sores are usually small painless ulcers. They occur on the genitals or in or around the mouth somewhere between 10-90 days (average three weeks) after exposure. Even without treatment they heal without a scar within six weeks.

The secondary stage may last one to three months and begins within six weeks to six months after exposure. People with secondary syphilis experience a rosy “copper penny” rash typically on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. However, rashes with a different appearance may occur on other parts of the body, sometimes resemblingrashes caused by other diseases. They may also experience moist warts in the groin, white patches on the inside of the mouth,swollen lymph glands, fever, and weight loss. Like primary syphilis, secondary syphilis will resolve without treatment.

Latent syphilis. This is where the infection lies dormant (inactive) without causing symptoms.

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Swine flu is the popular name for influenza (flu) caused by a relatively new strain of influenza virus A. It was responsible for the flu pandemic in 2009-10.

The virus is officially known as influenza virus A/H1N1pdm09.

The virus was first identified in Mexico in April 2009 and was also known as Mexican flu. It became known as swine flu because the virus closely resembled known influenza viruses that cause illness in pigs.

It spread rapidly from country to country because it was a new type of flu virus that few people were immune to.

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Heat stroke is the most serious form of heat injury and is considered a medical emergency. If you suspect that someone has heat stroke — also known as sunstroke — call 911 immediately and give first aid until paramedics arrive.

 Heat stroke can kill or cause damage to the brain and other internal organs. Although heat stroke mainly affects people over age 50, it also takes a toll on healthy young athletes.

Heat stroke often occurs as a progression from milder heat-related illnesses such as heat cramps, heat syncope (fainting), and heat exhaustion. But it can strike even if you have no previous signs of heat injury.

Heat stroke results from prolonged exposure to high temperatures — usually in combination with dehydration — which leads to failure of the body’s temperature control system. The medical definition of heatstroke is a core body temperature greater than 105 degrees Fahrenheit, with complications involving the central nervous systemthat occur after exposure to high temperatures. Other common symptoms include nausea, seizures, confusion, disorientation, and sometimes loss of consciousness or coma.

 

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Heat stroke, also known as sunstroke, is a serious medical condition, a medical emergency, when the body’s temperature rises too high as a result of excessive heat exposure. The body loses its ability to cool itself and overheats.

Heatstroke occurs when your body’s thermostat cannot keep your body cool. Your body relies on water evaporation to stay cool. As your temperature rises, your body reacts by sweating. When this sweat evaporates, it cools your body. The amount of moisture in the air (humidity) determines how readily sweat evaporates. In very dry air, sweat evaporates easily, quickly cooling your body; but in very humid air, sweat does not evaporate. It may collect on the skin or run off your body without affecting your body’s climbing temperature. Extremely warm and humid temperatures can quickly overwhelm your body’s cooling system—particularly when the air is not circulating. When sweating can no longer keep you cool, body temperature quickly rises, causing the symptoms of heat-related illness. Sunstroke is a type of heatstroke. Heatstroke is a condition that occurs after exposure to excessive heat. In sunstroke—also called heat illness, heat injury, hyperthermia, heat prostration, and heat collapse—the source of heat is the sun. Other types of heatstroke occur after exposure to heat from different sources. Heatstroke—including sunstroke—is considered to be the most severe of the heat-related illnesses. Heat can have punishing effects on your body. After excessive exercise or physical labor, your body can overheat, and you may suffer heat exhaustion. Heat cramps occur after excessive loss of water and salt; usually resulting from excessive sweating, or after strenuous exercise or labor. During heat exhaustion and heat cramps, the heat-controlling system is still intact, but can be overwhelmed. If this happens, heat exhaustion can progress to heatstroke, a life-threatening medical condition. In severe cases, heatstroke can even cause organ dysfunction, brain damage, and death.

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Sunburn is a form of radiation burn that affects living tissue, such as skin, that results from an overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun.

 Common symptoms in humans and other animals include red or reddish skin that is hot to the touch, pain, general fatigue, and mild dizziness. An excess of UV radiation can be life-threatening in extreme cases. Exposure of the skin to lesser amounts of UV radiation will often produce a suntan.

Typically, there is initial redness (erythema), followed by varying degrees of pain, proportional in severity to both the duration and intensity of exposure.

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A sunburn is a form of radiation burn that affects living tissue, such as skin, that results from an overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun.

Sunburn is the term for red, sometimes swollen and painful skin. It is caused by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun. Sunburn can vary from mild to severe. The extent depends on skin type and amount of exposure to the sun. Sunburn is a serious risk factor for skin cancer and for sun damage. Because of variations in the intensity of UV radiation passing through the atmosphere, the risk of sunburn increases with proximity to the tropic latitudes. The higher the latitude, the lower the intensity of the UV rays. On a minute-by-minute basis, the amount of UV radiation is dependent on the angle of the sun. This is easily determined by the height ratio of any object to the size of its shadow. The greatest risk is at solar noon, when shadows are at their minimum and the sun’s radiation passes more directly through the atmosphere. Regardless of one’s latitude (assuming no other variables), equal shadow lengths mean equal amounts of UV radiation.

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Emergency physicians have a significant responsibility in recognizing, managing and preventing suicidal behavior. This paper proposes a theoretical model for disposition of patients with suicidal ideas and behavior. This model is based on five well documented predictors of suicide: intention and lethality of the suicide attempt, psychiatric diagnosis, demographic and clinical factors, attitude towards the attempt and support system.

Treatment recommendations are based on initial assessment of these factors. Inpatients must be carefully supervised; the commonest forms of suicide in hospital are hanging and jumping from heights. Treatment plans should be implemented immediately. Since compliance with follow-up is very low in these patients, outpatient treatment should be implemented with an outreach program and integrated with community psychiatric and mental health services.

Factors which can be responsible to induce suicidal thoughts

  • Severe anxiety
  • Panic attack
  • Severe anhedonia
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Substantially decreased ability to concentrate
  • Repeated deliberate self harm
  • History of physical or sexual abuse
  • Employment problems
  • Relationship loss
  • Poor response to medication
  • Hopelessness
  • Family history of psychiatric illness
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A stye or hordeolum is a small, painful lump on the inside or outside of the eyelid. It is actually an abscess filled with pus and is usually caused by a staphylococcus bacteria eye infection.

 Styes are common with most people experiencing one or two of them at some stage in their life. Styes are usually visible on the surface but can appear deeper inside the eyelid.

An external stye starts as a small spot next to an eyelash. It turns into a red, painful swelling that usually lasts several days before it bursts and then heals. Most external styes are short-lived and self-limiting.

An internal stye (on the underside of the lid) also causes a red, painful swelling, but its location prevents the familiar whitehead from appearing on the eyelid. The internal stye may disappear completely once the infection is past, or it may leave a small fluid-filled cyst or nodule that can persist and may have to be opened and drained.

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