Orchitis in children most commonly occurs as a result of a viral infection.

  • The virus that causes mumps is most commonly implicated as the cause of orchitis.
  • Approximately one third of boys will develop orchitis from mumps infection.
  • It is most common in young boys, and testicular inflammation typically develops 4-6 days after the onset of mumps.
  • There are case reports of mumps orchitis occurring after immunizationwith the mumps, measles, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, but this is rare.
  • Other less common viral organisms which can cause orchitis include varicella, coxsackievirus, echovirus, and cytomegalovirus (associated with infectious mononucleosis).
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